Dating in the 1920s: Lipstick, Booze and the Origins of Slut-Shaming

As we trace the timeline of dating rituals, we can get a better sense of how Americans throughout time understood love and, by extension, the world. With the advent of new technologies cell phones, social media, Tinder, etc. It is important to note that historically many of these mainstream rituals were strictly confined to heterosexual dating. Dating did not yet exist in the modern sense; society instead favored a courtship model which almost entirely consisted of one long, parentally-controlled audition for marriage. Marriage during this time was less a public declaration of mutual affection and more an essential means of legally exchanging property between families. Courtship was the ritual that would allow the families to evaluate potential matches and determine if the arrangement would be advantageous. Reputation was also an essential form of social currency that required intimate guarding. Rather, love was regarded as the product of a constructed arrangement, eventually achieved by couples with aligned resources and values. This tradition of parental oversight was legitimized by the law, which held that guardians were permitted and expected to organize the transition of their child into a legal marriage. By the early 19th century, romance had rapidly become the desired method of courtship.

Life in the 20s

Charles Wickelus is the writer formerly known as 2Wycked. Follow him on Twitter The Roaring Twenties resulted in a myriad of changes in American society, but one prominent change was with respects to women — most specifically, the social phenomenon of the flapper. Consider a few historical points. First, remember the flapper movement began after the Civil War. Unhappy with their clothing options, job prospects and the general comportment society required them to engage in, women began to agitate for change.

The changes were superficial at first, as the requirement to wear floor-length dresses was a universal complaint shared by both liberal and conservative women.

The advent of the new century did witness a change in the style and content of women’s writing, as well as an increase in the depiction of feminine images and themes in literature.

Love, romance, and “wild women” in the s The s brought many changes for young women in the United States. As in the play ” Thoroughly Modern Millie “, millions of young women left the safety and security of rural, small-town life and went to live an independent life in the big city. The flapper culture is perhaps the best example of the type of life that many of them aspired to. Flappers flapper , [flapper] were young, independent, brash, and sometimes more than a little bit “naughty”, at least compared to what their family back on the farm expected.

Some of the most frequent collocates for flappers in COHA are dress, hair, blond, smoking, flat-chested, and chic, all of which make sense. In the sections that follow, I first look at some of the slang terms that were new in the s, which were used to describe these new women. And then I turn to new words that refer to the changing relationship between men and women at this time. As discussed in the book Dewdroppers, Waldos, and Slackers: A decade-by-decade guide to the vanishing vocabulary of the twentieth century Ostler there were a number of new terms for women in the s, which reflected the news ways in which they were being viewed by others in society.

There are a number of these terms that must have been really colloquial and maybe even localized, because they aren’t found at all in the million word COHA corpus, and are quite rare in even the billion word Google Books corpus. These include terms like chunk of lead unpopular young woman; in Google Books, but usually referring to the metal , sheba the female equivalent to the male sheik, as with Rudolph Valentino; hard to disambiguate in Google Books , strike breaker a woman who was ready to date her boyfriend’s best friend as soon as the relationship was over; nearly always referring to work stoppage in Google Books , and a woman who knows her oil i.

On the other hand, there are some interesting terms that do show up in the corpora. Flappers, of course, is very common, as mentioned above.

46. The Decade That Roared

The Flapper History The costume history image in our minds of a woman of the ‘Roaring Twenties’ is actually likely to be the image of a flapper. Flappers did not truly emerge until Flapper fashion embraced all things and styles modern.

Although many aspects of life began to change during the s, men and women still mostly held the traditional roles of decades passed. Men typically worked long hours in professions involving hard labor.

Plenty, it seemed, as the media of the day were saturated with commentary on the a-u-t-o and where it was taking America at breakneck speed. Accident rates soared, road construction lagged, traffic congestion dominated cities’ woes, and the need for more parking space seemed like a national emergency. Yet the automobile did reduce travel time, did reduce rural isolation, did increase life’s pleasures, did a lion’s share of boosting the economy. In the s, as never before, the automobile became a must-have item for the successful American, and it was changing everything.

There were certainly as many words written about the automobile as there were new cars on the road every year. We sample a small portion here, in three broad topics: Compare the commentary with that on other marvels of the decade, the airplane , the radio , and movies. You will find that humor appears more often in the automobile commentary: Selections can be divided among students for research and classroom discussion. Humorist Will Rogers on traffic safety. Renowned as the “cowboy-philosopher” of the s and s, Rogers began a nationally syndicated column of witty yet pungent news commentary in Becoming popular across the partisan divide, he traveled nationwide delivering his humorous take on the day’s events.

His folksy humor always delivered a punch, as is evident in his syndicated column of April 4, , in which he challenged Americans’ seeming acceptance of mounting traffic fatalities, and in his brief address to traffic chiefs , recorded in June , in which he offered five “rules” for reducing traffic accidents see transcript.

Jobs for Women in the 1920s

One era in particular, which took place between the turn of the 20th century and the second World War, is defined as a period where much changed for women in the United States. Increased presence on the political scene and a strong desire for more independence defined the s lifestyles of women as well as their lifestyles in the s. Getting Involved in Politics The s lifestyle grew out of the long-fought battle for women’s suffrage was won with the ratification of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution.

Gaining the right to vote inspired women to get involved in politics like never before. Women’s Education in the s For women, the ’20s and ’30s also brought more educational and career opportunities. At the turn of the century, only 19 percent of college degrees were awarded to women.

– Change of Attitudes Toward the Role and Status of Women During the ‘s and ‘s At the beginning of the ‘s all women over 30 and all women property owners over the age of 21 had been enfranchised by the Representation of the Peoples Act that was passed by the government in

Though writers in antiquity sometimes dealt with themes common to modern science fiction, their stories made no attempt at scientific and technological plausibility, the feature that distinguishes science fiction from earlier speculative writings and other contemporary speculative genres such as fantasy and horror. The genre formally emerged in the West, where the social transformations wrought by the Industrial Revolution first led writers and intellectuals to extrapolate the future impact of technology.

This approach was central to the work of H. Wells , a founder of the genre and likely its greatest writer. Wells was an ardent student of the 19th-century British scientist T. This dark dystopian side can be seen especially in the work of T. The sense of dread was also cultivated by H. Lovecraft , who invented the famous Necronomicon, an imaginary book of knowledge so ferocious that any scientist who dares to read it succumbs to madness.

On a more personal level, the works of Philip K. Dick often adapted for film present metaphysical conundrums about identity, humanity, and the nature of reality. When the genre began to gel in the early 20th century, it was generally disreputable, particularly in the United States , where it first catered to a juvenile audience. Following World War II, science fiction spread throughout the world from its epicentre in the United States , spurred on by ever more staggering scientific feats, from the development of nuclear energy and atomic bombs to the advent of space travel, human visits to the Moon, and the real possibility of cloning human life.

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In the early s, white Americans, especially those living in booming Northern cities, enjoyed post-war prosperity and economic growth. On the other hand, Southern black Americans saw little change in their socioeconomic status. The combination of increasing racial pride and long-standing racial hatred led to a tension-filled decade, known as the Roaring Twenties.

The development of the automobile had a tremendous impact on the United States in the s. Manufacturing created many jobs in industries that were related to the automobile industry.

The women’s movement, with its emphasis on advocacy of equal rights, newly formed women’s organizations, and the rise of a new generation of female artists, photographers, and professionals, transformed the traditional patriarchal social structure across the globe. Followed closely by the advent of World War I, these social shifts, which had been set in motion at the beginning of the century, developed further as women were propelled into the workforce, exposing them to previously male-dominated professional and political situations.

By the midpoint of the twentieth century, women’s activities and concerns had been recognized as a significant element of the literary, scientific, and cultural landscape of several countries, marking a revolutionary change in the social and domestic roles of women. The end of the nineteenth century saw tremendous growth in the suffrage movement in England and the United States, with women struggling to attain political equality.

The suffragists—who were often militant in their expressions of protest—presented a sometimes stark contrast to the feminine ideal of the era, which portrayed women as delicate, demure, and silent, confined to a domestic world that cocooned them from the harsh realities of the world. Despite many challenges English and American women eventually won the right to vote, in part due to the changed perception of women’s abilities following World War I.

As men were called to war, companies that had previously limited employment in better-paying jobs to white males found themselves opening their doors to white women and women and men of color. Racial and gender tensions escalated during this time, and many jobs were in fact permanently redefined as “women’s work,” including teaching, nursing, secretarial work, and telephone operations.

In what ways did the automobile change American life in the 1920s?

The emergence of a generalized mass culture depended upon the introduction of a number of technological developments supporting a nationally organized and interrelated network of media and entertainment including radio, film, recordings and various forms of theater, most notably vaudeville and musical theater. Yet because metropolitan neighborhoods remained largely segregated, even after the great northern and western migrations, the panoply of races and ethnicities populating American cities were often separated within public entertainment venues.

It was within the decadent but affordable vaudeville theaters and picture palaces of the s and s that Americans of a variety of ethnic backgrounds, male and female, first socialized and interacted in ways previously prohibited. While the convenience and uniformity of these media ensured Americans a nationalized popular culture industry intimately invested in the distribution of mass commodities, it was the heavily racialized subject material of radio, recordings and films that most appealed to an expanding middle class.

Their position in the workplace throughout the s was an indicator of this. Women voters and the Sheppard-Towner Act Many people had either feared or anticipated the emergence of a “woman’s” voting block, but that did not seem to be the case in

The Invention of the Teenager The automobile was monumental in the evolution of courtship. High speed and moonlight drives inspired a spirit of reckless abandon. In the 19th century, the American world consisted of children and adults. Most Americans tried their best to allow their children to enjoy their youth while they were slowly prepared for the trials and tribulations of adulthood. Although child labor practices still existed, more and more states were passing restrictions against such exploitation.

The average number of years spent in school for young Americans was also on the rise. Parents were waiting longer to goad their youngsters into marriage rather than pairing them off at the tender age of sixteen or seventeen. In short, it soon became apparent that a new stage of life — the teenage phase — was becoming a reality in America.

1920s in Western fashion

Dating Rituals in the s By: Karen Spaeder In the s, long before the days of cell phones and social networking, dating was a simple affair that revolved around jukeboxes, soda fountains and well-defined social norms. Dating rituals dictated the proper ways for men to court women, with marriage being the desired outcome for couples that were “going steady.

In the s, dating rituals were clearly defined.

Most of the women in the ‘s that were married, dedicated their full time staying home and taking care of the family. These women would have children,do laundry, make dinner, clean the house, and care for the children every step of the way.

A New Jazz Culture Throughout the s, jazz music evolved into an integral part of American popular culture. The “primitive” jazz sound that had originated in New Orleans diversified, and thus appealed to people from every echelon of society. The effect of jazz music upon society can be depicted through a close examination of different aspects of popular culture. Jazz music had a profound effect on the literary world, which can be illustrated through the genesis of the genre of jazz poetry.

Fashion in the s was another way in which jazz music influenced popular culture. The Women’s Liberation Movement was furthered by jazz music, as it provided means of rebellion against set standards of society. The status of African Americans was elevated, due to the popularity of this distinctly African American music. For the first time in American history, what was previously considered “bottom culture” rose to the top and became a highly desired commodity in society.

Poetry and music are among the most compelling and beautiful forms of art. During the s, these two forms merged, and the genre of jazz poetry was created. The Harlem Renaissance and the influence of African American writers and intellectuals substantiated the intellectual and spiritual appeal of jazz music.

productivity

Actress Louise Brooks in , wearing bobbed hair under a cloche hat Clothing fashions changed with women’s changing roles in society, particularly with the idea of new fashion. Although society matrons of a certain age continued to wear conservative dresses, the sportswear worn by forward-looking and younger women became the greatest change in post-war fashion. The tubular dresses of the ‘teens had evolved into a similar silhouette that now sported shorter skirts with pleats, gathers, or slits to allow motion.

The flapper dress was functional and flattened the bust line rather than accentuating it.

In the s, dating had become commonplace. Young people now had unlimited possibility to meet at social events at dance halls, speakeasies and bars, skating rinks, movie theatres, sports courts, places where man and women could freely mixed in a socially acceptable environment.

Abstract Alpine glacier variations are known to be reliable proxies of Holocene climate. Here, we present a terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide TCN -based glacier chronology relying on 24 new 10Be exposure ages, which constrain maximum Neoglacial positions of four small to mid-sized glaciers Rateau, Lautaret, Bonnepierre and Etages in the Ecrins-Pelvoux massif, southern French Alps.

Glacier advances, marked by mainly lateral moraine ridges that are located slightly outboard of the Little Ice Age LIA, c. It is considered as one of the first major Neoglacial advance in the western Alps, in agreement with other regional paleoclimatological proxies. Other Neoglacial advances dated here match the timing of previously described Alpine Neoglacial events.

Our results also suggest that a Neoglacial maximum occurred at Etages Glacier 0. At Rateau Glacier, discordant results are thought to reflect exhumation and snow cover of the shortest moraine boulders. Overall, this study highlights the need to combine several sites to develop robust Neoglacial glacier chronologies in order to take into account the variability in moraine deposition pattern and landform obliteration and conservation.

The Roaring 20’s: Crash Course US History #32